快乐赛车游戏

保护传承敦煌文化 增强中华文化自信

来源:快乐赛车游戏_快乐赛车下载_【官网首页】 作者: 樊锦诗 2019-02-16 09:00:00

快乐赛车游戏  2019nian8yue19rixiawu,xijinpingzongshujidaodunhuangyanjiuyuanshichamogaoku、chakanzhenzangwenwuhexueshuchengguozhanshi,lejiewenwubaohuhehongyangchuanchengdunhuangwenhuayishuqingkuang,tongdunhuangyanjiuyuandezhuanjia、xuezhehewenhuadanweidaibiaozuotanbingfabiaozhongyaojianghua。zuoweiyimingbishengcongshidunhuangmogaokubaohuyanjiudewenwugongzuozhe,kuailesaicheyouxiqinerlingtingxijinpingzongshujiduidunhuangwenhuabaohuchuanchenggongzuodezhongyaojianghua,beiganzhenfen。xijinpingzongshujidejianghuashikuailesaicheyouxizuohaowenwugongzuodezhongyaozhizhen,jilikuailesaicheyouxizhujiuzhonghuawenhuaxinhuihuang。

  敦煌文化是各种文明长期快乐赛车游戏融汇的结晶

快乐赛车游戏  xijinpingzongshujizaijianghuazhongshenkezhichu: dunhuangwenhuashigezhongwenmingzhangqikuailesaicheyouxironghuidejiejing。kuailesaicheyouxiguozihandaiyilailiangqianduoniandelishizhanghezhong,dunhuangshizhongyizhonghuachuantongwenmingweigenji,buduanxinazhelaiziqitadiyuheminzudewenmingchengguo。duoyuanyitidedunhuangwenhuashizhongchuanchengzhezhonghuachuantongwenhuadejinghua,tongshiyoushanyaozhegudaiyinduwenming、bosiwenming、xilawenmingdecuicanguangmang,chengweijushizhumu、tesexianmingdediyuwenhua。

快乐赛车游戏  dunhuang,dichuhexizoulangxiduan,xilinxiyu。sichouzhilukaitonghou,zi“xihai”(dizhonghai、lihai)dongxingjingxiyumenhuyiwu、gaochang、shanshansandao,zongcoudunhuang。zuoweihanwangchaodexibubianchui,dunhuangsuojuyoudekongedongxijiaotongdeteshudiliweizhi,shitachengweihanwangchaojinglvexiyudeqiaotoubao,diandingledunhuangwenhuadewutai。

  zaozaigongyuanqian2000nianqianhou,shuyuqingtongshidaidesibawenhuahuoshaogouleixingdexianmin,jiuyijingkaishileduidunhuangdiqudekaifa。qian121nianhanwudikaijiangkuotu,dunhuangdiquzhengshinaruhanwangchaobantu,weixiyudejingyinglakailexumu,jinershizhongxikuailesaicheyouxichengweihanwangchaodeguojiaxingwei。qian111nianshedunhuangjunyihou,bushaoneidideshijiadazuqianrudunhuangdingju,zheixieshijiadazudailaidezhongyuanwenhuayudangdishaoliangyuanjuminsuojidiandeyuxiyu、zhongyaqiansiwanlvdewenhuayinsu,gongtonggouchengjianshidehanjindunhuangwenhuaturang。erzheizhongyiyiminweizhutidejumin,jizaixinqiandiyugongkeshijiandekaifajingli,shitamenjiaoshaojuniyuquyudeyitong,ergengfuyuxianghulijiehebaorong,zhongyuxingchengzheiyidiquzijuedebaorongbingxudewenhuajiyin。zheiyangjiushihanzuyuyueshi、xiongnuyixujiyihouyuxianbei、sute、tufan、huigu、dangxiang、menggudengshaoshuminzudehepinggongchuchengweichangtai。

  conghandaixuanquanzhiyizhichutudexihanzhaodi(gongyuanqian86—qian74nian)yihoudejiandubiaoming,xuanquanzhiyizhandeyigezhongyaozhinengshijiedaixiyuzhuguolaihantingdeshijie,cengjiedaiguolaiwangyuhantinghexiyuzhijiandedayueshi、kangju、guizi、jibin、dawan、wusun、yutian、jingjuedeng29guoshijie。dunhuangzaidonghanmingdi(gongyuan58—75nian)shiqijiujiang“futu”zheiyijuyoutedingwenhuaneihanhezhixiangdewailaiciyuyongzuodiming,kejiandunhuangzuoweihanwangchaoxichuijunzhi,yichengweilejieyiyuwenmingdechuangkouhewenhuajiaorongdeshoushanzhiqu。hanmosanguoqijianlaihuadezhumingyijinggaoseng、jushianshigao、anxuan、zhiloujiachen、zhiqian、kangju、kangmengxiang、kangsenghui、baiyandeng,zhengshifenbielaizixiyudeanxi、dayueshi、kangju、guizidengguo。sanguoliangjinzhishiliuguoshiqi,fojiaozaidunhuangzhujianzhagen,yuzhongguochuantongderujiawenhua、daojiaowenhuabingcunbingjin,fazhanchengweidangdidezhuyaozongjiaozhiyi。shizaoyuqianqinjianyuanernian(gongyuan366nian)demogaoku,zeshidunhuangfojiaowenhuafazhandezuixianzhubiaozhi。

  敦煌是河西诸绿洲中为戈壁环绕的最小绿洲,适宜的自然和文化生态环境,不仅使这里成为一千余年各朝开窟不辍、历代造像迭新的特殊佛教圣地,更以遗存的大量中古文书与其他各类文物成为著名的人类文化遗产。图为敦煌莫高窟九层楼全景。 敦煌研究院供图 吴健/摄

  zhongguoxiancunsidashikuzhong,yungang、longmenshikujieyinbeiweizhudiyouqishixiaowendisuozhi,suijundichujingdou,danyinrenzhifei,gudoujuyouhenqiangdeshiduanxing。maijishanshikuzuideshanshuidililingxiu,zishishansengdunshiyinxiudebuerzhixuan。erdunhuangshihexizhulvzhouzhongweigebihuanraodezuixiaolvzhou,qijingjishiliyudidoujikaifajiaozaodegansudongbuxiangjiao,chajuzhidabukeyidaoliji。danyoushishenmeyuanyinshicongdongerlaidelezunhefaliangduduchuiqingyucini?

  liaokailezunyuci“hujianjinguang,zhuangyouqianfo”jifaliangsuojian“zhuduoshenyi”deshenhuamiansha,zhenshidedaanzhinengshi——shiyideziranhewenhuashengtaihuanjing。keyishuo,zhengshidunhuangdiquzheiyangtedingdelianjiedongxi、goutongzhongwaidewenhuachuangkougongnengjisanbaiduonianfojiaowenhuadejinrunsuojidiandefengwodefojiaowenhualetu,cushilezun、faliangzhaoshiyuci“jiakongjuanyan”。jinguandunhuangdiqucihouyilvlibingxian,zuizhongrengranzaojiuleyiqianyuniangechaokaikubuchuo、lidaizaoxiangdiexindeteshufojiaoshengdi,yicunleyidaliangzhongguwenshuyuqitageleiwenwusuogouchengdeyouxiurenleiwenhuayichan。

  bansuizhe20shijichudunhuangshikuzangjingdongwenxiandefaxian、liusanhechuanbo,zaizhonghuawenhuadepuxizhongcuishenglejushizhumude“dunhuangxue”,shidunhuangzouxiangshijie。wangguoweixianshengjiangyinxujiaguwen、dunhuangsaishangjixiyudehanjinmujian、dunhuangshikuzangjingdongdeliuchaojitangrenxieben、beijingneigedakudeyuanmingyilaishujidangcechengzuo19shijimozhi20shijichuzhongguoxueshushishangdesidafaxian,erdunhuangyidisuochubianzhanqier。qizhongdunhuangsaishangmujianshizhisitanyinzaidunhuangzhangchengyizhicaijideshubaimeimujian。20shiji90niandaichu,dunhuangxuanquanzhiyizhikaogufajueyouhuohanjinmujianshuwanmei。zheixiekexuefajuedemujianziliaojidadichongshiledunhuangwenhuadeneihan。

快乐赛车游戏  dunhuangwenhuadeneihanfeichangguangfan,zuoweiyidiguanmingdediyuwenhua,qihexinwuyiyingyidunhuangmujianhedunhuangshikuqun(dunhuangmogaoku、xiqianfodong,guazhouyulinku、dongqianfodongjisubeiwugemiaoshikudeng)deshikukaogu、shikuyishuyijizangjingdongwenxiandezongheyanjiuweibiaozhi。

快乐赛车游戏  dunhuangfojiaodefazhanyuxingsheng,lidaishijiadazu、shenzhihuangshiguizushizhuyaotuidongzhe。zaimogaoku,fanshiguimohongda、yishujingmeidedongkuduoweishijiadazusuojian,qiexingchengyizhongchuantong: wangwangyijiayiku,huoyizushuku,huofuzixiangji、shenzhizuchuangsunxiudeyingjianchuantong。zaishijiadazuhehuangshiguizudedaidongxia,xiajiguanliheyibanshishuminzhongyerezhongyukaikuzaoxiang。chumogaokuwai,zaidunhuangxiqianfodong、subeiwugemiao、guazhouyulinkudeng,douliuxialedaliangdesengsugejiecengminzhongkaizaodedongku。

  jiekaifojiaojiaoyideshenmiweiman,dunhuangbihuafengfuduocaidefoguoshijiezhengshidangshixianshishijiedezhenshizheshe。kuailesaicheyouxicongfanshengshenmidezongjiaowenhuadebeijingxia,suokandaodedangshirenmendeshengchanshenghuo、minsujieqing、hunsangjiaqu、xinuailedengrenshengbaitai,runongzuotuzhongdemanzuheqinqie、jiaqutuzhongdexiyuehereliedeng,jiubuzaiyoushijiandejulierkeyizhijieduihua;jianzhu、fushi、yongju、gongjudengjuyoubutongshidailuoyindewuzhizaoxing,ruputongminjudeposhikexin、didouchongloudetianguolanben,zesihuchushoukeji、kegankezhi,congergouchengdunhuangzhonggushiqihuolinghuoxiandeshehuiwenhuafazhanyanbiandetupu。dunhuangbihuasuobaohanhezhijiefanyingdelishi、minzu、wenhua、jiaoyu、jingji、jianzhu、keji、minsu、shengchanshenghuo、yiliaoweisheng、dongxikuailesaicheyouxi、hanjinchuantongwenhuayufojiaowenhuadeguanxi、siyuan、zongjiao、zongjiaoliupai、canshanyigui、shikuxingzhi、shiku(bihua、diaosu)yishu、shizuguanxi、gongyangfangshidengfengfuneihan,jiubuzaishichouxiangdegainian。tamenbujinshiquzhibujinyongzhibujiededongxiwenmingjiaorongdewenhuabaozang,erqiehaijuyougudaiwenmingdebowuguangongneng。

  zaidunhuangwenxianzhong,jinzangjingdongchutuwenxianjiudawuwanduojian,muqiankezhiyoumingquejinianzheshangqixijinyongxingernian(gongyuan305nian),xiazhibeisongxianpingwunian(gongyuan1002nian),jiashangdunhuangshikubeiqujinniankaogufajuechutudexixiawen、huiguwen、zangwen、mengwen(hanbasibawen)、fanwen(hanpoluomiwen)deyuandaifojiaodianjiyijixuliyawen《shengjing》zhailudengwenxian,tadeqizhishangxiaxianyudunhuangshikudekaizaojibentongbu,yelishiqiannian。zheixiewenxianyiduozhongwenzidexiebenweizhu,haiyoushaoliangyinben。yuezhan90%defojiaodianzangzhuzuobujinchongfenzhanshiledunhuangdiquhuoyuedefojiaowenhuabeijinghezhujiazhengming、bingcundelianghaowenhuafenwei,fojiaowenxianbenshenhaijuyoujiweinandedeshiyibuquehexiaokandelishiwenhuajiazhi。erdaojiao、jingjiao(jidujiao)、monijiaodianjiheguzangwen、sutewen、yutianwen、huiguwen、fanwenfojiaodianji,congyigecemianfanyingduoyuanwenhuakuailesaicheyouxidemianmao。qitawenxiansuizongliangbuda,neirongquejiweifengfu,shejizhengzhi、jingji、junshi、dili、minzu、yuyan、wenxue、jiaoyu、tianwen、lifa、suanxue、yixue、keji、meishu、yinle、wudao、tiyudeng,jihubaohanlezhonggushiqishehuiwenhuadegegefangmian,erqiewenhuaneihanyuanyuantupoledunhuangbenshendediyujuxian,zuyidaibiaozhonghuawenmingjiyuxifangwenmingdewenhuakuailesaicheyouxibeijing,yinerkanchengzhongguozhonggushiqidebaikequanshu。

  youyudunhuangdiquduominzu、duozhongzongjiao、duozhongwenhuazhangqibingcun,zhishishehuishenghuodegegefangmiandoutixianchuxianmingdediyuwenhuatedian。rutedingdilitiaojianxiafadadeshangyejingjishenghuoxingtai、fuzadechengshijuzhubuju、dutedeyinshijiegouhexingshi、huameiduozidefushizhuangban、juyounongyufojiaofenweidesuishijieling、buqichuantongshanrongxinsudejiaqusangzangdeng,qishehuishenghuodefengfuduocai,lingrenmubuxiajie。

  dangzhongguodesichou、taoci、zhizhangdengtongguosichouzhiluyuanyuanbuduandichuandaoxifangshi,xifangrenyetongshidailailezhongguoguoqusuomeiyoudeputao、muxu、yujinxiangdengzhiwu,shizi、baojixiyumingmadeng,haiyoujingmeigongyipin,rujinshugongyi、liuliheboli、nirong、maotanjigezhongzhuangshiwudeng。xuduowailaidewupinzaidunhuangbihuazhongliuxialedaliangdexingxiangziliao,ruchutangdi209、329dengkudezaojingtuanzhongdewenyangzhuangshi。dunhuangbihuashouyinduhexiyudeyingxiang,qizhongdeshizihedaxiangdengxingxiang,yemiaohuidebijiaozhenshi。

快乐赛车游戏  nanbeichaodaosuitangshiqi,bosidegongyipintongguosichouzhiludaliangchuanrulezhongguo,rushouliexingxiangshigudaibosizuiliuxingdezhuti,biaoxianshouliexingxiangdeyinpanjiucengzaizhongguobeifangduoyoufaxian。bosisashanchao(3—5shiji)zhengshiluomadiguoqiangshengdeshidai,ouzhoudeluomawenhua、xiyadebosiwenhuayuzhongguowenhuazaicongzhongyadaoxiyadeliaokuodiyuxiangpengzhuang,chuchuliuxialewenmingjiaohuideyinhen。dunhuangxiweidi249kukudingbihuazhongjiuyoubosifenggedeshoulietu。suidaochutangshiqidunhuangcaisuyubihuapusadefushizhong,chuxiandaliangdebosiwenshi,rulianzhuduiniaowen、lianzhuduishouwen、linggeshifengwendeng。

快乐赛车游戏  boli、liulizuichuchuanruzhongguoshi,zhiyoudiwangheyixieguizunenggouyongyou。zaisuitangdunhuangbihuazhong,ruchutangdi401kudepusashouchiboliwan,wanbianhaixiangqianzhebaozhu,shengtangdi199kudepusayeshoupengyibolibei,beizhongchahua。leisideboliqimin,zaibushaodongkubihuazhongjunyouchuxian,fanyingledangshiboliqimindeliuxing。xiangluzuoweilifodegongqi,wangwangjiejianwaiguoyangshierzhizuo。

快乐赛车游戏  dunhuang,zuoweihaishangsichouzhilukaitongqianguojijiaowangdetongdouyaoyi,duoyuanwenmingdehuicuijiaorongzaidunhuangshikuhedunhuangwenxianzhongjundedaochongfentixian。zaizhongguogudaichuantongwenhuachuanchengfazhandezhumaizhong,tongshiyunhanzhegudaiyinduwenming、xilawenming、bosiwenminghezhongyadiquzhuduominzudewenhuayuansu。yinci,bodajingshendedunhuangwenhuashigezhongwenmingzhangqikuailesaicheyouxironghuidejiejing。

  敦煌文化展现了中华民族的文化精神、文化胸怀和文化自信

  xijinpingzongshujizaidunhuangyanjiuyuandejianghuazhongshenkezhichu,yanjiuhehongyangdunhuangwenhua,jiyaoshenruwajuedunhuangwenhuahelishiyicunbeihouyunhandezhexuesixiang、renwenjingshen、jiazhilinian、daodeguifandeng,tuidongzhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhuachuangzaoxingzhuanhua、chuangxinxingfazhan,gengyaojieshiyunhanqizhongdezhonghuaminzudewenhuajingshen、wenhuaxionghuaihewenhuazixin。

  daliangdegeleilishiwenwuyicun,qishikuailesaicheyouxiqurenshidunhuangwenhuaneihandebodajingshen。zaixiangdangzhangdelishishiqinei,fojiaozaigudaidunhuangzongjiaowenhuazhongshizhongzhanjuzhezhuyaodiwei。fojiaowenhuadechangsheng,bujintixianzaizhongguodachengfojiaodegegezhuyaosixiangzongpaidexianghucujinhefazhan,chuanyi、chaoxiefojingyijikaikuzaoxiang、juxingfahuidengzhengtongdezongjiaohuodongdepinfanheguimo,yetixianzaidunhuanggudairenminderichangshenghuo、suishijieqingheyulehuodongzhongsuofanyingdejihuwushi、wuchubuzaidefojiaowenhuayinji。tongshi,daojiaozuoweitushengtuzhangdezhongguozongjiao,yeyitasuoteyoudegenshendigudeduoshenchongbaidesixiangfangfacunzaiyugudaidunhuang。lingwai,qitawailaizongjiaoruxianjiao、monijiao、jingjiaoheyisilanjiaodeng,yezaitedingdeminzuwenhuaquanneichangxingqidao。dunhuangwenhuazheiyixianxiangdejiazhizaiyubutongwenhuajiazhitixidehemuxiangchu。

  敦煌佛教洞窟的兴建,历代世家大族、甚至皇室贵族是主要推动者。壁画反映了当时人们的现实生活和人生百态。图为段文杰临摹的莫高窟第130窟甬道南壁盛唐时期都督夫人供养像壁画。 敦煌研究院供图 吴健/摄

快乐赛车游戏  dunhuangwenxianzhonghaiyoudaliangfeihanyuwenxian,xuduoshiyijingxiaoshide“siyuyan”,ruhuiguwen、yutianwenhesutewendeng。zheixiewenxianduiyuxiangguanminzudelishiwenhuayanjiudejiazhiheyiyizibudaiyan,qiyuhanwenwenxianyijiduozhongzongjiaodegongchu、kuailesaicheyouxibenshen,zhanshiledunhuangwenhuadezixin、ziyou、kaifanghebaorongbingxu。zaizheiyangwenhuajichushangdewenhuachangshenghebodajingshen,shiwenhuafazhandebiranjieguo。zheizhongwenhuachangshengdeyinguoluoji,duiyukuailesaicheyouxijintiandewenhuakuailesaicheyouxihejiazhiquxiang,yinggaijuyouhenqiangdeqishiyiyi。

  zuoweisichouzhilushangdemaoyiheshangyedoushi,dunhuangdeshangyewenhuahenxingsheng。dunhuangwenxianzhongyoubushaofanyingshangyehuodonghejiufendewenshu。ru《sujiangdouliaozhaosengzidianerqi》shiyifensirenjiandinglideqiyuewenshu,neirongweisujiangzhaosengziyinqueshaolaozuogongju,jiangzijierzidianjiqinjia。zheixiewenshu,qishiyefanyingledunhuangshangyewenhuadeyigezhongyaotezheng——qiyuejingshen。

快乐赛车游戏  gudaidunhuangwenhuabiaomingwenhuayujiaoyushizhongjinmijiehezaiyiqi,chongfenfayangyiwenhuarendezhineng。wenhuaxueshufangmiandejianshuzhuyaotixianzaiduichuantongrujiajingdiandeyanjiu、chanshiheshishuyanxi、dizhi、dilidianjidezhuanxiudengfangmian。zidunhuangkaijunyishi,jiushelixuexiaojiaoshuyuren,shidunhuangwenrendaichu、yashibujue,zaizheizhongwenhuajiaoyufenweizhongdedunhuangwenxueyuyishuyebiejufengcai。dunhuangwenxuezuopinkefenweilianglei,yileishichuanshiwenrenshiwendechaoben,shuchuantongdewenrenshidafudezhengtongwenxuezuopin;yileishiyijiangjingwen、bianwen、ciwen、huaben、yuanqigushi、sufu、quzici、baihuashidengweidaibiaodesuwenxuezuopin。tedingyiyishangde“dunhuangwenxue”xianranshizhidunhuangteyoudesuwenxue,taxianhuo、mingkuai,juyounongyudezongjiao、shenghuoqixi。hongpianjuzhi《weimojiejingjiangjingwen》,yijingyunyulehoudaizhanghuitibaihuaxiaoshuodechuxing。zangjingdongsuochudunhuangjiangchangwenxuezuopinjin200gexiejuan,baokuojin80pianzuopin。dunhuangwenxuezuopinzhenshichengxianchuduoziduocaidetangwudaiminjianwenxuemianmaojifazhanyanhuamailuo,qitizhixingshiheyuyanfenggeduisongyuanhuaben、yuanzaju、mingqingzhanghuixiaoshuodengdouchanshenglejudadeyingxiang,jidadifengfulekuailesaicheyouxiduizhongguowenxueshiderenshi。

  莫高窟第285窟有西魏大统四年(538年)、五年(539年)的题记,是莫高窟最早有明确纪年的洞窟。这一洞窟带有明显的中原风格特征,窟顶都有飞动的彩云和各种传说中的神怪,其中还有中国的神仙,反映了外来佛教与中国本土文化的融合。图为莫高窟第285窟的洞窟形制。 敦煌研究院供图

  dunhuangdewenxueyishutixianzhejianshoubingxu、zixinchuangxindehuihongqidu。dunhuangbihuaticaijiweifengfu,bihuahuizhijijijiquxiangyingshidaizuixianjindehuihuajifahelinian,yuxiantiaohesecaidetengzhuannuoyizhongjinkoushidaimaibo,shenhanjingyiyiyun,zhishihuazuomeibushengshou。zhuyaoyoufoxianghua、fojinggushihua(baokuobenshenggushi、fochuangushi、yinyuangushi)、zhongguochuantongshenhuahua、fojiaoshijigushihua、jingbianhua、gongyangrenhuaxiang、zhuangshituanhuadeng。zailiangjinnanbeichaozhisuitangshidaizhongyuanhuajiazuopindadoushichuandejintian,dunhuangbihuajiuchengweikuailesaicheyouxirenshizhonggushidaizhongguohuihuashidezhongyaoyiju。zainanbeichaoshiqi,chuanzixiyudehuafazhujianbeizhongguodehuajiasuoxishou,huashijizaibeiqihuajiacaozhongdahuarenwuyiwenchoudieruchushuizhizhuang,beichengwei“caoyichushui”。nanchaozhangsengzhoucengcaiyong“aotufa”zainanjingyichengsihuizhibihua。cao、zhangdehuafazhengshichuanziyinduhexiyudehuafa,zaidunhuangzaoqibihuazhongshifenliuxing,rubeiliangdi275ku、beiweidi254kudengbihuazhong,miaohuirenwutongchangyanrentilunkuoxianyongzhongseyunran,zhongyangbuweizejiaodan,tixianchulitigan。zheiyijifayuyinduazhantuoshikudi2ku、di17kudengkuzhongdebihuarenwuwanquanyizhi,shuomingshilaiziyindudehuafa。zaixinjiangdekeziershikuyecaiyongletongyangdejifa,yecheng“xiyushiyunranfa”。

  shengtangshidai,beichengweihuashengdewudaozibazhongguorenwuhuayishutuixianglegaofeng。wudaozidedalianghuihuazuopinhuiyuzhanganheluoyangdesiyuan,suizhezheixiesiyuandeyinmie,bihuayejiubucunzaile。dunhuangdi103kudongbiweimojiejingbianzhong,yijingjiandexianmiao,lveshidancai,goulechuyigeqiyuxuanang、xiongbiantaotaodeweimojiexingxiang;di158kunan、beibibiaoxianniepanjingbianzhongdedizijigeguowangzi,renwushentaishengdong,xianmiaoliuchangerqiujing,secaixiangduijiandan,zhengshiwudaoziyipaiderenwuhuafengge。tangdaidi39ku、172ku、321ku、320kudengzhongduodongkuzhongdebihuafeitianxingxiang,biaoxianfeitianqingyingdetitai,liuchangerpiaojudeyishipiaodai,yetixianzhe“wudaidangfeng”deqiyun。congnanbeichaodaosongyuanshiqi,dunhuanghuihuasuiranyejuyoubentudetedian,dancongyishufazhandedaqushilaikan,shizhongshoudaozhongyuandiquhuihuafazhandeqianglieyingxiang,zhongyuanchuxiandexinhuafeng,zonghuixunsuchuandaodunhuang。yinci,dunhuangyishudefazhancongmouzhongyiyishangkan,jiushizhongguomeishushideyigesuoying。

快乐赛车游戏  dunhuangshikujihumeikujieyoulewuxingxiang,bibijinshimanmiaowuzi。nandedetuxiangyuxiangguandunhuangwenxianhuweiyinzheng,weilejiezhongguogudaiyinlewudaodefazhantigongleshengdongxiangshideziliao。qisuobiaoxiandeyinleneirong,zhanshileyigecongzaoqiduiyindu、xiyufenggedemofang,daosuitangyihouzhongguominzuyinlezhubuxingchengdelishiguocheng。wudaoyejinglileleisideguocheng,zaoqiwudaojiaoduoyindu、xiyujibeifangyoumuminzufengge,suitangzaironghejichushangticai、leixingbuduanfengfu,xingchengqishihuihongdeminzuhuaxinfengshang,yinglailedatangshengshiwudaoyishudehuangjinshidai。qizhongzhanxiandezhonghuaminzudewenhuajingshen、wenhuaxionghuaihewenhuazixin,weikuailesaicheyouxizhujiuzhonghuawenhuaxinhuihuangtigonglefengfudejingshenzhicheng。

  铸牢中华民族共同体意识

快乐赛车游戏  xijinpingzongshujizaidunhuangyanjiuyuandejianghuazhongqiangdiao,yaojiaqiangduishaoshuminzulishiwenhuadeyanjiu,zhulaozhonghuaminzugongtongtiyishi。

快乐赛车游戏  zihanyilai,dichusichouzhilujiaotongyaodaodedunhuangjiushiduominzuzajudedifang,zhonggushiqidedunhuangjizhoubiandiquzhangqicunzaizhetufan、huigu、dangxiangdengshaoshuminzuzhengquan,zheixieminzuzaiyidingchengdushangyouyingxiangzhedunhuangdejumin,xingchenglehanminzuyuzhoubiangeminzuhexiexiangchu、wenhuajiaorongdezhuangkuang。yinci,dunhuangwenhuajuyouduominzuwenhuabingcundexianzhutedian。

  dunhuangbihuabujinzhanshilezhonggushiqihanminzufuzhuangyanbiandelishi,erqiebaocunlegudaixibeiduogeminzudezhenguifushiziliao,kechengweizhongguofushiwenhuadebaoku。chulebeichaoshiqidexianbeizuwai,zhongtangshiqichuxianletufanrenwuxingxiang,rudi159kudetufanzanputoudaichaoxiaguan(zhihongzhangaomao),bianfashujiyuerce,jingshisesezhu,shenpidafanlingdezuorenzhangxiuquekushan,yaoshugedai,zhangyaowuxue。beisongmoqi,huigushilizaidunhuangyidaiqiangdaqilai,bihuazhongchuxianlebushaohuigurengongyangxiang,rudi409kuyouhuiguwangjiwangfeixingxiang,huiguwangdaitaoxinggaoguan,shenzhetuanlongwendeyuanlingzhaixiupao,yaoxidiexiedai。huiguwangfeizetoudaitaoxingfengguan,erzhuidaerhuan,shenzhedajiaolingdezhaixiuzhangpao,zheishidianxingdehuigufuzhuang。

快乐赛车游戏  11shijixixiatongzhidunhuangyihou,bihuazhongyeliuxialexixiadangxiangzudefuzhuang。ruyulinkudi29kuxixiawuguangongyangxiang,renwutoudaiyunlvguan,shenzheyuanlingzhaixiupao,yaojianyouhubi,shuzhangdai,zudengwupixue。nvgongyangrenxiang,toudaigaojixiaotuanguan,shenchuanjiaolingzhaixiushan,baizhequn,gonglv。xiaohaixingxiangshitoudingtufa,yeyuwenxianjizaixiangfu。xixiafuzhuang,keshuoshihan、xiahunhezhuang。yuandaibihuazhongyoumengguzurenwudexingxiang,ruyulinkudi6kumingchuangbihuazhongyou4pufufuerrengongyangxiang,nanzitoudaibaodinglianhuaguan,chuibianji,zhezhisun(mengguminzudepaoshiyisefu),zudengliuhezhangyaoxue。nvzitoudaiguguguan,shenchuanjiaolingzhaixiuzhangpao。

  “yizuhunyin”yeshidunhuangdiquhunyinguanxideyidatese。butongminzuderenmenzaizhangqixiangchu、gongtongshenghuodeguochengzhong,buduanjiaqiangkuailesaicheyouxihexianghulejie,yizhiyudapominzuheguojiadejiexian,xianghutonghun。dunhuangwenshu《zachao》zhongyou“cidaojun,chupinggezhong,wuyouadang。hunvjiahan,hannvjiahu,liangjiaweiqin,gengbuxiangduo”dejizai,shuodeshizaozaisanguoshicangcirendunhuangtaishoushijiuyouhuhantonghundeqingkuang。tangsongshiqidunhuangshikubihuahuiyouhuhantonghundetuxiang,ruyulinkudi38kuxibidehunlitu,fenbiezhehuiguzhuanghehanzhuangdenannvlaibinweizhuoerzuo,weimanneixinrenzhengzaixingli,xinlangtoudaifutou,zhehanshipaofu,zhengzaiwanyaoxingli,pangbianzhanlizhetoudaitaoxingguan,jingshisesezhudehuiguxinniang,huamianshengdongdifanyinglehanzuyuhuiguzuzhijiantonghundechangjing。

快乐赛车游戏  jinnianlai,suizhezangjingdongsuochufeihanyuwenxiandepoyiyujiedu,shaoshuminzuwenxueyeyinqileguangfandeguanzhu,rutufanwen、huiguwendewenxuezuopin。tufanwenwenxuezuopinzuiyinrenzhumudeshiyinduzhumingzhangpianshishi《luomoyannei》deyiben,cileixiejuanyou6jian,kenengweitufanshiqichuanru。jiangdunhuangchutudetufanwenbenyufanwenjingxiaoben《luomoyannei》bidui,faxianwulunneironghaishipianfu,jingxiaobendefanwenbenkongpadouchiyutufanwenben,congerjieshichudunhuangtufanwenbendezhongyaojiazhi。gudaizangzurenhaifanyilebushaogudaihanyuwenxue、shixuemingzhu,ru《shangshu》、《chunqiuhouyu》ji《kongzixiangtuoxiangwenshu》deng,shangshutufanwenxiejuanzaidunhuangzangjingdongzhongyedouyoufaxian。

  huiguwenzuopinrujiangchangwenxue《shaneliangwangzidegushi》,zheigegushihanwenbencaiyongdeshiduihuaxingshi,huiguwenbenbeigaiweichenshushi。ciwai,haiyouhuiguyuyunwenti《guanyinjingxiangyingpiyutan》zuopin。zaiyigehuiguwenfojiaoshijicanjuanzhong,kuailesaicheyouxihaikekandaobilannashiligenjuhanwenfodianerchuangzuodehuiguwenshige《puxianxingyuanzan》。

  dunhuangwenxianzhongbaocunleguzangwende《huojiuliaofa》、《zaliaofang》deng,daibiaolezangyixuedechengjiu。《yilijinghua》benshiyinduhenyouyingxiangdegudianyixuededaibiaozhuzuo,zangjingdongbaocunleyizifanwendeyutianwen《yilijinghua》。han、zang、yindengbutongwenhuaxitongbutongyuyanwenziyixuewenxiandegongchu,zhanshilebutongyixuewenhuazaidunhuangdiqudekuailesaicheyouxihexianghujiejian。

  jintiandedunhuangwenhuayanjiuyaozaiyiwanglishixue、kaoguxueyanjiudejichushangjiaqiangduisichouzhilulishiwenhuadeyanjiu,youqishijiaqiangzhongguoxibushaoshuminzuwenhuayanjiu,zhongya、xiyayijinanyayinduwenhuayuzhongguogudaiwenhuakuailesaicheyouxidelishiyanjiu。gudaiyutianwen、tuhuoluowen、sutewen、huiguwen、fanwen、xixiawendengminzuwenziyanjiubeichengwei“lengmen”he“juexue”,danzheixie“lengmen”he“juexue”wangwangkeyiweikuailesaicheyouxirenshigudailishidakaixindechuangkou,chengweizhongguogudailishi、zhongxiwenhuakuailesaicheyouxishiyanjiudetupokou,weizhulaozhonghuaminzugongtongtiyishitigonglishidejiejian。

  保护传承文化遗产 彰显中国特色社会主义文化自信

快乐赛车游戏  xijinpingzongshujizaidunhuangyanjiuyuandejianghuazhong,duidunhuangwenhuabaohuyanjiugongzuobiaoshikending。yaoqiukuailesaicheyouxijiaqiangduiguocuichuanchenghefeiwuzhiwenhuayichanbaohudezhichihefuchi。tebieqiangdiao,bamogaokubaohuhao,badunhuangwenhuachuanchenghao,shizhonghuaminzuweishijiewenmingjinbuyingfudezeren。yaoqiukuailesaicheyouxinulibayanjiuyuankuailesaicheyouxichengweishijiewenhuayichanbaohudedianfanhedunhuangxueyanjiudegaodi。

快乐赛车游戏  huiwangdunhuangyanjiuyuanshushizaifengyulicheng,yidaiyouyidaimogaokudejianshouzhezhengshizaidangheguojiawenwugongzuofangzhenzhengcedezhiyinxia,yibaohuchuanchengzhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhuadegaoduzijue,yi“jianshoudamo、ganyufengxian、yongyudandang、kaituojinqu”demogaojingshen,zhangxianlezhongguoteseshehuizhuyiwenhuazixin,shiqianniangulaoyichanzhongxinhuanfachuyiyiguangcai。

  16shijizhongye,suizhelushangsichouzhilushuailuo,jiayuguanfengguan,mogaokuzhangqiwurenguanli,renrenpohuaitoudao,shenshengdefojiaoyishudiantangjichengfeixu。dunhuangzangjingdongwenwudehaojie,beizhongguoxuezhechengweikuailesaicheyouxiguoxueshuyidashangxinshi。weilegaibian“dunhuangzaizhongguo,dunhuangxuezaiguowai”dejumian,jidaizhongguoxuezhewanqiangfendou,weizhonghuaminzuxueshuzixinzuochulejudadenuli,chengweizhongguoxueshuzixindeyigedianfan。

  盛唐时期的敦煌彩塑写实性很强。高超的写实技巧使这些塑像栩栩如生,同时艺术家非常注意雕塑的群体性。第45窟这一组7身彩塑,以佛为中心,左右大体对称排列,塑像目光俯视,参观者会感到每身塑像都在看着你。图为莫高窟第45窟西壁龛内彩塑。 敦煌研究院供图 张伟文/摄

  1944nianguolidunhuangyishuyanjiusuochengli,yichangshuhongweidaibiaodeyipizhishirenren、qingnianxuezi,shenfudamogebi,jiankufendou,chuchuangjiye。xinzhongguodanshenghou,gengmingweidunhuangwenwuyanjiusuo,mogaokudedaodangheguojiadegaoduzhongshi,kaizhanleqiangjiuxingbaohu。20shiji80niandai,dunhuangwenwuyanjiusuokuojianweidunhuangyanjiuyuan,kuodabianzhi、zengjiabumen、huijurencai,mogaokushiyemairuleguojihezuo、kexuebaohu、hongyangchuanbodezhanxinjieduan,yinglaileshengjibobodechuntian。

  2003nian,kuailesaicheyouxijianyide《gansudunhuangmogaokubaohutiaoli》zhuanxiangfagui,jinggansushengrendachangweihuizhidingbanbushishi。《tiaoli》banbuhou,kuailesaicheyouxijinyibuzhidinglemogaokubaohu、lvyoukaifangdongkubiaozhunheyoukeyuyueguanlidengguizhangzhidu。zaiwenhuayichanbaohufanweinei,wulunlvyoujichusheshihuobangongsheshi,yanjinpohuaimogaokudebentihehuanjingfengmao、yanjinkuailesaicheyouxiweiguishangyesheshi。《tiaoli》weimogaokudebaohu、liyongyuguanlitigongleqiangyoulidefalvzhichenghebaozhang。

  mogaokudebaohushiyixiangjianjuerfuzadexitonggongcheng,dunhuangyanjiuyuanyuguoneiwaikeyanjigouhezuozhidingle《dunhuangmogaokubaohuzongtiguihua(2006—2025)》。《guihua》zaiduimogaokuwenwubentijiqihuanjingdebaohu、baocun、liyong、guanliheyanjiufenbiezuochuxitongkexuepinggudejichushang,zhidingchuzongtiguihuademubiao、yuanzeheshishixize。weibaohu、liyongheguanlimogaokutigonglezhuanyexing、quanweixing、zhidaoxingdeyiju。zhijinyiyouxiaoshishile10duonian。

  dunhuangyanjiuyuanzunzhao《baohushijiewenhuaheziranyichangongyue》jiqi《caozuozhinan》quedingdezhenshi、wanzheng、keyanxudibaohushijiewenhuayichandezuigaolinian,bujinbaohumogaokubentigegeshidaidesuoyoudongku、bihuahecaisu,erqiehaibaohulishiliucundesuoyouderenwenheziranhuanjing,yinweilishiderenwenheziranhuanjingshiwenhuayichanbukehuoquedezuchengbufen。kuailesaicheyouxibujinzheyanyudangdaidebaohu,erqienulizuodaowanwanzhengzheng、yuanzhiyuanweidijiangmogaokudequanbujiazhihelishixinxichuanjizisunhoudai。

  dunhuangyanjiuyuanduonianlaishizhongzunxun“bugaibianyuanzhuang”dewenwubaohuyaoyi,caiquduozhongbaohujishucuoshi,shishimogaokuyatihedongkujiagu,qiangjiulexuduodongkujingmeidebihuahecaisu;zhenduimogaokubihuahecaisuzhujiantuihua,caiyongshuzihuajishu,zhubushishimogaokuquanbuwenwudeshuzihuachucun;weitigaomogaokubaohudezhudongxingheyujianxing,yifengxianguanlililunweizhidao,jinyibukaiqileyufangxingbaohu,jianlilemogaokuanquanjishufangfanxitongdeng,fanghuanyuweiran。zheixiecuoshidoutixianlewenwubentijiqihuanjing“bugaibianyuanzhuang”debaohujingsui,zhenzhengrangmogaokudedaozhenshi、wanzhengdeyouxiaobaohu,rangmogaoku“yannianyishou”。

快乐赛车游戏  dunhuangyanjiuyuanzaibaohuhaowenwudeqiantixia,kexuehelidiweilvyoukaifangchuangzaotiaojian。weichongfenfahuimogaokudejiaoyuhongyangchuanchenggongneng,jingxintiaoxuanlebutongshidai、butongkuxingdedianxingcaisuhebihuadengdaibiaoxingdunhuangyishuxiangyoukekaifang,shiyoukezaiduanshijiandeguanshangzhongnengkandaodongkudejinghua。weishiyoukenengshenduguanshang,haizaimogaokukuailesaicheyouxilebowuguanhezangjingdongchenlieguan,jinyibujiedumogaokudewenhuajiazhi。dunhuangyanjiuyuanhaitongguoshuzidunhuangshimogaokuwenhuayishuzouchudongku、zouchudunhuang、zouchugansu、zouchuguomen,duocizaiguoneiwaijubandunhuangyishuzhanlan、dunhuangbihuayishujingpingaoxiaogongyixunzhan,zoujindazhong。tongguoshuziwangzhanzhongyingwenbanshangxian,shiquanqiukeyizaixiangongxiang“shuzidunhuangziyuanku”30gedongkugaoqingshuzituxianghexunimanyoujiemu,yunyongxinmeitipingtaijianghao“dunhuanggushi”,ranghuihuangcanlandezhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhuadeshijieyingxiangliyuelaiyueda,jijituidongdunhuangwenhuayanjiukuailesaicheyouxigongjian“yidaiyilu”。

  mogaokuzi1979nianzhengshikaifangyilai,dunhuangyanjiuyuanshizhongjianchifuzerenlvyoudeyuanze,jiangbaohuguanchuanyulvyoukaifangdequanguocheng。suizhemogaokudeyoukeshuliangxunmengpansheng,weiletuoshanjiejuewenwubaohuhelvyoukaifangzhijiandemaodun,kuailesaicheyouxijianchengle“mogaokushuzizhanshizhongxin”,liyongshuzidunhuangdanganziyuan,jiangdongkubihua、caisuzhizuochengshuzidianying。rangyoukexianguankan4kchaogaoqingkuanyinmudianying《qiannianmogao》he8kchaogaoqingqiumudianying《menghuanfogong》,zaiduidunhuangyishuyoulechubutiyanhou,zaidaomogaokushitishiduguanshangdongku,zuodaoshikuwenwubaohuhelvyoukaifangshuangying。

  dunhuangyanjiuyuanyuguoneiwaidegaodengyuanxiao、keyanyuansuochixuduoniankaizhanhezuo,gongtongduimogaokudebaohu、chuanchengheguanlijinxingletansuoyanjiu,xishouleguoneiwaidexianjinbaohulinianhechenggongguanlijingyan,xuexilexianjindebaohufangfahegongyi,shigudaibihuabaohuzaiguoneijuyulingxiandiwei,bingzhujianyuguojijiegui。dunhuangyanjiuyuanhaicaiyongduozhongbanfa,peiyangbutongcengcirencai,chongfenjiezhuguoneiwaihezuodeyoulitiaojian,xuansongzhongqingnianzhuanyerenyuandaoguoneiwaigaodengyuanxiao、keyanyuansuojinxiuxuexi。xianyijianchengyizhiduoxuekedezhuanyerencaiduiwu,weimogaokudebaohuchuanchengshiyetigonglejianshiderencaizhicheng。

  dunhuangyanjiuyuanduimogaokudeyouxiaobaohu、heliliyongheyangeguanli,huodeleguoneiwaiguangfanrentonghezanxu。2010nianzaibaxizhaokaideshijieyichanweiyuanhuidi34jiehuiyi,jiangdunhuangmogaokudebaohuguanli、lvyoukaifangjingyanzuoweidianxinganli,xianggeguoshijieyichandichuanbogongdajiafenxiang。huiyixingchengdedahuiwenjianfujianwenbenzhichu: “mogaokuyifeifandeyuanjian,zhanshileyouxiaodeyichandilvyouguanlifangfa,yibaohuyichandidejiazhi,shulileyigejijuyiyidedianfanxingxiang。”

  zuozhe: dunhuangyanjiuyuanmingyuyuanzhang、gansushengzhongguoteseshehuizhuyililuntixiyanjiuzhongxinyanjiuyuan

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